All posts by Martha Middleton

I am active in Adult Education content development and best practices. I have been privileged to work alongside some of the best minds in Adult Education from Non-Profits to Corrections. All striving towards the ultimate goal of moving adults from under employed to full time employment with access to the American Dream of a better life for self and family.

Something Old…Something New

For generations, we have used the concept of pen pals to expand cultural awareness. My goal is to include digital literacy as part of the experience by using the tool in a safe manner.

Outline of lesson:

Objective: to expand cultural awareness by directly engaging peers.

Grade: 4

Unit of Study: State

Activity 1: Students will brainstorm daily life in regions of Alaska. Assumptions will be recorded in whole class discussion. Students will be encouraged to group based on their interest in geographical regions.

Activity 2: Students will conduct internet research to prove or disprove assumptions based on their selected geographic region.

Activity 3: Students will compile a list of 20 questions to ask their cohorts. Questions shall be generated by the teams

Activity 4: virtual pen pal through Skype. Ask questions and record results as well as answer questions from their pen pal group.

Activity 5: Compile a Virtual field trip highlighting what they want their pen pal group to know about them. Use any multi media application to build the presentation.


The tasks require the student to engage using technology as a tool. The teacher as coach provides direction around proper citation of sources as well as appropriate information to share in the virtual field trip.

IP and Use with Permission

Search and Research (Sort of)

The class has been focused on the questions around IP and Copyright protection and should it stay or should it go. I hold the opinion IP and Copyright protection for digital should be the same as protection for print.

For this exercise, I wanted to test the idea of requesting permission to use someone’s work in entirety on my blog. How arduous would the process be? Would they request compensation? Would it take a significant number of days..weeks…months to get a response?

I found a piece Plagiarism Today Original Text which interested me and aligned to the topic I was trying to demonstrate. I contacted them and asked permission to use their work in it entirety on my site. My only “give back” to the them was assurance I would link back to their site to allow my readers to jump to their site for additional info. No money changed hands, they did not ask to review before I published, and they took less than 48 hours to respond to my request.


Apps: The Future of Copyright Infringement
Apple-App-Store-logoThe Roanoke Times recently published the story of Brian Raub, a developer of travel-related websites and the creator of, a site dedicate to reviewing vacation-destination lakes across the world.
Raub had discovered that a company based in India had produced some 11 apps, each selling for 99 cents in the Apple App Store, that were scraping content from his site and republishing it wholesale. All without permission, attribution or any kind of revenue share.
When Raub approached Apple with the problem, they asked Raub to work it out with the company involved directly. However, the company, often responding in broken English, denied the copying even though it was clear and refused to remove the apps or his work.
Apple eventually removed the 11 apps at issue only to have the company upload 20 more, each representing a different state. Apple, so far has not removed those apps though it is unclear if Raub has filed a DMCA takedown notice.
The story caused a bit of a blowback in the mainstream tech press, especially on Apple sites, with journalists talking about Apple’s copyright infringement problem and the repackaging of content into paid apps.
However, this problem isn’t anything new. Countless apps make use of website content and there’s a very good chance that, if you have a popular website, your content may already be featured in an app.
Easy Apps, Easy Content
Creating an app has never been easier. In addition to the barriers of entry being lower than ever, there are services such as Apps Geyser and iBuildApp that will enable you to create an app from your site either for a small fee or a revenue share.
However, there is little, if any, checking being done to see if the content the apps are pulling is owned by the app creator. As a result, many apps pull content from websites without their permission.
Often times this is fairly innocuous. If you search for “TechCrunch” in the Apple App Store, you’ll first find the official app but then you’ll see several “News” apps that basically pull the RSS feed of TechCrunch along with similar sites to make a news feed, much like a pre-loaded RSS reader.
These apps aren’t republishing content, there’s full attribution and the sites that use truncated RSS feeds likely see a decent amount of mobile traffic from it. While it would be nice if these apps obtained permission, they are at least in a symbiotic relationship with the sites they pull from.
But then there are apps like the one Raub found. Since LakeLubbers does not offer an RSS feed, the content was either copied or automatically scraped from Raub’s site directly and then pasted into the apps directly without attribution.
It is unclear how many apps like this there are. These apps aren’t trivial to search for because they, usually, won’t list the source of their content, instead attempting to make it appear like they created it, and there’s no easy way to search for text, images or video inside apps being sold.
The only way to find the content, as Raub found, is to look for suspicious apps and download them, often at cost, to find out where the content came from.
But Raub is almost certainly not the only one impacted and the Apple App Store is not the only app store involved. Plagiarism and copyright infringement, including of Web-based content is a much broader issue.
The Broader Problem
We’ve all heard tales of copyright infringing apps in app stores.
In May of this year, Microsoft was called out for a “cesspool” of infringing apps that allowed users to illegally stream movies and TV shows. Two months prior, Lilith Games sued uCool for copyright infringement in its mobile game “Heroes Charge”, which was featured both in the Apple App Store and the Google Play store.
In short, the Raub’s case is just the latest in a long line of copyright problems in app stores that goes back years, as shown by the 2010 battle over AppVault, which was pulled from the Apple App Store after allegations it was a rip off of a similar app.
The issue is that, as the barriers to producing mobile apps have lowered and the amount of revenue flowing into them has increased, the checks and balances against copyright infringement have not increased either.
Though, in 2011, Apple added copyright infringement to the reasons it gives when rejecting apps, its clear from Raub’s case that the App Store review process isn’t able to completely weed out copyright infringing apps.
And the truth is there probably isn’t a way. Much as with online courses, it’s unfeasible to ensure that all of the text, images, video, audio and code in an app is original or authorized, especially when more than 1,000 apps are submitted every day.
Still, this doesn’t mean that Apple, Google and Microsoft should give up on stopping copyright infringing apps. Instead, they need to work on improving their policies to discourage infringement and encourage innovation.
Fixing (or at Least Addressing) the Problem
As with online courses, tracking copyright infringement in apps is going to be a challenge, however, the stores can do a great deal to discourage the submission of copyright infringing apps including:
  1. Ban Copyright Infringers: This one sounds simple, but the company in Raud’s case submitted 11 infringing apps that were removed and then were allowed to submit 20 more. Even if Raud never filed a DMCA, clearly this company was a repeat infringer and needed to have their access to submitting apps cut.
  2. Look for Warning Signs: According to Apple, copyright infringement is not a common reason for apps to be rejected. However, app stores have numbers and statistics on the apps that are and can likely find warning signs that an app needs extra review for possible infringement.
  3. No Ill Gotten Gains: When an app is confirmed to be copyright infringing, through whatever process the store has, there needs to be an assurance that the infringer will not be able to keep their ill-gotten gains. This can be difficult since app stores pay developers on a regular basis, but finding ways to ensure infringers can’t profit from their misdeeds is the biggest step one can take to limiting the number who submit infringing apps.
To be clear, these steps won’t eliminate copyright infringement in app stores. However, as I stated in the previous article about online courses, if you want a community that respects copyright and creates original work, you need to strongly discourage infringement as well as encourage novelty.
In short, if you don’t clamp down on copyright infringement, you’re going to find yourself in a community that’s filled with infringers, making it difficult for the original creators to find an audience.
Bottom Line
The frightening part is that this problem is only going to grow. As ad blockers are introduced to mobile browsers and the barriers to releasing an app keep dropping, more and more content creators are going to turn to apps to supplement their income. With them will come a small but growing number of plagiarists an infringers.
However, without action, the numbers of infringers will continue to grow unchecked and given how prolific copyright infringers can be (it’s a lot faster to produce apps when you don’t have to create original content) they can easily drown out legitimate publishers.
Raul’s story is a warning for both creators and the companies that run app stores: Apps are not just the future of content, but the future of copyright infringement. Creators need to be ready to protect their content and app store owners need to be prepared to keep the infringers at bay.
The next challenge has just begun and it will be interesting to see how all sides respond.


Here is the form:

Content Reuse Form

Name:Martha Middleton

Company/Organization (If Any):University of Alaska Fairbanks (Student)

URL(s) and Title(s) of Works You Wish to Reuse:

How Much of the Work Do You Wish to Use?:Complete Text

Will This Be a Commercial Use?:No

Where Will The Work Appear (Include Site URL if Possible)?:


Overall, a painless process with positive results. Copyright protection does not mean we can not have a conversation around use. In my opinion, it provides the developer protection and the ability to decide how their work will be used in the future. Ask for permission.

A great resource for copyright information is Legal Guide. They not only outline the process of requesting permission but also provide guidance around what you can do should your request be denied.

Regardless of the copyright owner’s response, you can still use the work if your use comports with the fair use doctrine. The doctrine of fair use makes it legally permissible for you to use a copyrighted work without permission for purposes such as commentary, criticism, parody, news reporting, and scholarly works. Whether or not your use is lawful usually depends upon how different or “transformative” your use is from the original. Unfortunately, there is no clear formula to determine the boundaries of fair use. Refer to the section on fair use for a general discussion of the doctrine.”

Copyright 2007-16 Digital Media Law Project and respective authors. Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike

For more detailed rights requests you might end up negotiating with the rights holder for permission including compensation. This is typically the route for commercial works requesting permission. The PDF Permission to use digital and online content has some great information to guide your process. On page 3 the author poses special uses for digital content any requester needs to be mindful of. In short, having permission to use the content does not mean you can use it any form you would like. You need to specific in your request.

Publishers Weekly  is another great resource copyright information. On this page, there is a link for Attorney Howard Zaharoff who provides guidance  from the legal viewpoint.  Granted, his guidance is mainly “hire a copyright lawyer” he does provide some good nuggets around Fair Use.

Fire Away

EIELSON AIR FORCE BASE, Alaska -- The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, shines above Bear Lake here Jan. 18. The lights are the result of solar particles colliding with gases in Earth's atmosphere. Early Eskimos and Indians believed different legends about the Northern Lights, such as they were the souls of animals dancing in the sky or the souls of fallen enemies trying to rise again.  (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Joshua Strang)
EIELSON AIR FORCE BASE, Alaska — The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, shines above Bear Lake here Jan. 18. The lights are the result of solar particles colliding with gases in Earth’s atmosphere. Early Eskimos and Indians believed different legends about the Northern Lights, such as they were the souls of animals dancing in the sky or the souls of fallen enemies trying to rise again. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Joshua Strang)


Under 508C world wide web sites must be 508c. If you create content which links out to the web you would need to certify the site to which you link is 508c. Does that limit the content you can provide? Does this fall outside of reasonable accommodation?

I have been looking for research supporting the idea that digital content makes classroom accommodation more accessible and lowers not only the burden but the cost. Has anyone found any information to support this hypothesis?

I have sat on multiple sides of ADA, IDEA, 504, and 508. I have created IEPs as a classroom teacher, I have certified content as a publisher, and I have demanded services as a advocate. In all three rolls, what strikes me is the the use of “reasonable” and how that is interpreted based on which chair you occupy. Having been out of the classroom for many years, I wonder if the schools have a more detailed playbook for defining accommodations? Sort of an “If Then” resource to reduce the subjective nature of formulating accommodations.

Understanding ADA

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal civil rights law that provides protections to individuals with disabilities.  It guarantees individuals with disabilities equal access to public accommodations, employment, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications.

Library of Podcast from The Inclusive Classroom


Under Title II, a public school must ensure that its services, programs, and activities are accessible to students with disabilities.  A school may be required to change the participation criteria for  its programs, activities, and services if those criteria prevent students with disabilities from accessing the programs, activities and services.  Title II does not require a  school  to change its participation criteria if it can establish that the requirements are necessary for the provision of the service, program or activity. Title II requires public schools to reasonably modify its policies, practices, or procedures to avoid discriminating against students with disabilities; and make school buildings physically accessible to students with disabilities

Section 504 applies to schools taking federal grant monies. Whereas Title II covers public schools regardless of federal funding.

A reasonable accommodation in education is a bit open for interpretation and ends in court cases over the definition of reasonable. Legally, a modification or adjustment is defined as reasonable if it appears to be “feasible” or “plausible” and does not place undue hardship on the provider. Undue hardship is defined as being significantly difficult and covers both expense and difficulty of providing modification.

For example, a reasonable accommodation for a visually impaired student might be providing resources in braille or in audio format. An unreasonable accommodation would be the expectation of providing an individual to shadow the student and read all of the printed material if providing braille and audio support allows the student the same access to learning as a non sight impaired student.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a federal law that requires schools to serve the educational needs of students with disabilities and unlike Section 504 it goes a step further and addresses the financial need by providing the financial resources to make appropriate accommodations.

IDEA also covers the creation of an IEP. Individual Education Plan,  an IEP is specific in nature covering the modifications and outlining strategies, measurements, and responsibilities needed to address the disability.

Best Comparison Site for Section 504 Title II and IDEA

The big picture for content developers

All content developers know their content, or hope their content, reaches a wide audience. The audience includes students falling under protection of ADA, Title II, IDEA, and Section 504. As such, content developers have to develop to ensure their content can accommodate special needs. For me this means including Alt text tags on all images, coding to allow screen readers to function correctly, and ability to layer audio and video. The reading reminded me of the importance of building in the ability to modify. It not only helps the student but reduces the bur



Are you focused on FERPA? Are you even aware of FERPA or is that something that I am overly sensitive to as a result of working in the space of Correction Education (Prisons)? FERPA Timeline

If you are not aware of FERPA, below is a brief overview from Ed.Gov. As a side note, Ed.GOV is considered public domain.

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 U.S.C. § 1232g; 34 CFR Part 99) is a Federal law that protects the privacy of student education records. The law applies to all schools that receive funds under an applicable program of the U.S. Department of Education.

FERPA gives parents certain rights with respect to their children’s education records. These rights transfer to the student when he or she reaches the age of 18 or attends a school beyond the high school level. Students to whom the rights have transferred are “eligible students.”

  • Parents or eligible students have the right to inspect and review the student’s education records maintained by the school. Schools are not required to provide copies of records unless, for reasons such as great distance, it is impossible for parents or eligible students to review the records. Schools may charge a fee for copies.
  • Parents or eligible students have the right to request that a school correct records which they believe to be inaccurate or misleading. If the school decides not to amend the record, the parent or eligible student then has the right to a formal hearing. After the hearing, if the school still decides not to amend the record, the parent or eligible student has the right to place a statement with the record setting forth his or her view about the contested information.
  • Generally, schools must have written permission from the parent or eligible student in order to release any information from a student’s education record. However, FERPA allows schools to disclose those records, without consent, to the following parties or under the following conditions (34 CFR § 99.31):
    • School officials with legitimate educational interest;
    • Other schools to which a student is transferring;
    • Specified officials for audit or evaluation purposes;
    • Appropriate parties in connection with financial aid to a student;
    • Organizations conducting certain studies for or on behalf of the school;
    • Accrediting organizations;
    • To comply with a judicial order or lawfully issued subpoena;
    • Appropriate officials in cases of health and safety emergencies; and
    • State and local authorities, within a juvenile justice system, pursuant to specific State law.

Schools may disclose, without consent, “directory” information such as a student’s name, address, telephone number, date and place of birth, honors and awards, and dates of attendance. However, schools must tell parents and eligible students about directory information and allow parents and eligible students a reasonable amount of time to request that the school not disclose directory information about them. Schools must notify parents and eligible students annually of their rights under FERPA. The actual means of notification (special letter, inclusion in a PTA bulletin, student handbook, or newspaper article) is left to the discretion of each school.

Does FERPA go far enough to protect student information in a digital age?

Copyright and Fair Use

I had a conversation with an educator about a year ago. The educator was excited to tell me about a new online course he was creating. To create the course, he had purchased a variety of textbooks on the subject from a variety of publishers. He was scanning the pages into the platform and adding questions as well as picking up the existing activities.

In his opinion this is Fair Use. His justification, the content was to be used in an educational setting so he was free and clear. Plus, he was taking print and making it “digital” and adding his questions to the content.


What do you think? Fair Use or Copyright Violation


Creative Commons

Reflection at sunrise
Reflection at sunrise

I chose to install Creative-Commons-Configurator plugin to attach Creative Commons to my entire work.The plugin allows me to set CC levels to the entire blog as well as adjust for individual pieces.

I am using

Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-4.0)Creative Commons License . I have added meta data to the site which will allow quick sourcing of my content for those looking for similar work with similar license.

I chose BY to keep my name attached to the original work. Vanity I guess, I want to ensure I am known as the originator as my work improves or moves on to something much more robust. I want to remain attached to the growth.

I chose non commercial to protect any potential monetary value. I support my work expanding in the cultural domain but do not want someone making money from my work. Greed I guess.

Choose and properly implement/display a Creative Commons license for something you’ve made for this class. Along with the work you are licensing, or in a separate explanatory page/post if that works better for your presentation, explain why you chose the license you did: explain both the license elements you chose and the ones you didn’t choose. For example if you chose the CC-BY-NC, I want you to share why you chose that license and why you didn’t choose the SA or ND options. What kind of uses are you trying to promote? What kind of uses are you trying to prevent?

Along with your explanation, write up two fictional scenarios: one in which someone uses your work properly (according to the license you chose) and one in which someone uses it improperly. Be sure to explain how the proper scenario takes advantage of the specific license you chose and what rule(s) weren’t followed in the improper-use scenario…and what you would do if you were to discover such an improper use.

Fair (Ish) Use

[metaslider id=226]


Dough (King Arthur Flour Soft Pretzel Recipe from soft buttered pretzels)

  • 2 1/2 cups King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 teaspoon sugar
  • 2 1/4 teaspoons instant yeast
  • 7/8 to 1 cup warm water*
  • *Use the greater amount in the winter, the lesser amount in the summer, and somewhere in between in the spring and fall. Your goal is a soft dough.

King Arthur Flour has an amazing base recipe for pretzels. However, where is the fun in just a basic pretzel? Using the King Arthur Flour Company Soft Pretzel Recipe try creating the topping listed below to add a little more punch to the average pretzel.

For a KICK

Mix 3/4 cup of vegetable oil, 1 package of ranch dressing mix, 1 teaspoon of garlic powder, 1 teaspoon cayenne pepper in a bowl. brush over the hot just from the oven pretzels


Brush hot from the oven pretzels with butter then sand with granulated sugar

Taste of France

Shape the pretzels and place on your baking sheet. Brush the tops with olive oil. Sprinkle herb mixture and bake.

Herb Mixture: 1/2 teaspoon dried basil, 1/2 tablespoon ground savory, 1/2 tablespoon dried thyme, 1/2 tablespoon dried rosemary, 1 tablespoon sea salt.



I used a recipe and image from the King Arthur web site. I did not claim creation of the pretzel recipe and made sure to tie back to the King Arthur website. The purpose and character of use does not infringe on their ownership or seek to claim the work as my own but rather builds on and enhances the original.

The nature of the copyrighted work is a free to all recipe located on a flour company’s website. The recipe is copyright protected. I contend, it would be a violation of fair use to pick up the recipe and claim it as mine

The amount work used is 100% and then new content added to the original text. The addition within my website notes the original work and only claims the toppers as original works.

The effect of the use upon the potential market is a positive for the King Arthur Flour company. The share of the original work to a wider audience or potential duplicate audience without replacing the original work which uses the creating manufacturer’s core products. The use of the original work does not shift revenue from KAF or impact their earning potential.






I am someone trying to figure it out. I question a lot and find myself arguing as a way to sort information. I enjoy the process of debate and welcome the challenge to my current positions. I find myself circling around ideas and enjoy digging deeper through discussion. As a result I find myself in constant analysis paralysis when it comes education theory. As a result, I am trying to stick to the idea that educators change, adapt, grow, and define based on the situation of the moment not due to the latest research or swing of the pendulum.

Professionally I build content to meet the needs of identified customers. My work can be defined as very outcomes based as opposed to creative. I have a pre defined objective along with deliverable timelines and financial milestones. I love my job! I get to see the impact of education on adult learners and their families.

I am active in Adult Education content development and best practices for Adult Learners. I have been privileged to work alongside some of the best minds in Adult Education from Non-Profits to Corrections. All striving towards the ultimate goal of moving adults from under employed to full time employment with access to the American Dream. A dream of a better life for self and family.

I care about what we leave behind. It is our job to lend a hand to the next generation and lift society up. I am beyond fortunate in that my career matches my passion. I have worked in Educational Publishing for the past 20 years. While creating content is a charge, there is nothing better than attending graduation and hearing how what you created helped a family or individual change thier path in life. Adult Education does not just impact the learner but the wider family unit creating options further down the line.  Professionally, I am part of a team changing lives through one curious learner at a time by creating opportunities for life long learning. I create digital courses in blended learning environments designed to move the learner along at their pace, speaking to them where they are in life, removing education baggage, and helping the left behind learner “eat the elephant’ one bite at a time.

In my personal time, I break a lot of eggs! I like to create amazing cakes and spend a lot of time in the kitchen/lab. Some outcomes better than others, who knew green tea added to the batter would make the cake taste like spruce bark? It was worth a try.  I have also created some pretty amazing combinations like chocolate cake with port wine reduction infused mouse. Now if I had only remembered to write it down.

Breaking eggs can be fun when in the kitchen but not so much in the classroom. If I were to engage in a protest it would be around education. I feel strongly, we need to move away from a one size fits most approach to education. Granted, the basics are the basics and everyone needs exposure to the basics but why did we move away from apprentice education? What caused us as a society to decide only those with advanced degrees in classical education are truly educated? I believe there are many paths to success once you have the fundamental skills in hand. Paths beyond higher education paths that lead to gainful employment and purpose. I am not saying do away with higher education but I would protest our habit of assessing a person’s worth based on pieces of paper.

Along that same thought, if I had the power to change the world I would do away with the question, “what do you do”. How many times in life have you decided a person’s worth based on what you see as the importance of thier job? How many times have you been in a social setting and been asked by a stranger , “so tell me, what do you do”. I would remove the need to rank a person’s value to you by what they do for a living. That is thier job/career not who they are.

“Who are you?” you ask? I am someone damned by the need to plan every detail. I am the planner that drives everyone nuts. I am the one who needs to see the end goal before starting a project. I am the one not capable of letting life simply happen. Annoying, isn’t it. If my magic wand worked I would change that about me. I admire people who can just let life happen.

History of Copyright

I find copyright history more of an economics lesson than a moral lesson. Power and money are the two true reasons behind the need to protect IP. Take a look at the attached timeline to get a view of the path of copyright law through the ages.

Prezi on Copyright Path

Copyright Timeline by Rebecca Missler





While the current copyright laws were not built to address digital media they do provide a framework for conversation. The government, individuals, and corporations have been engaged in discussion around the . Future of Copyright 2016. Of particular note in the attached piece is the absence of high level engagement from the government. The government is stuck in a spiral of enforcing rules designed to protect commerce not protect creativity.

When looking at copyright laws the common glue is protection of content from making copies. However, the idea of making copies has morphed with technology. The original goal was to protect the economic value of the work. Single pay equal single use. I think the idea was originally created with the eye on corporations being protected against other corporations or business. Cory Doctorow makes the argument we should shift the mindset from protection of copy to more of a protection of use.

Excerpt: Information Doesn’t Want To Be Free

Laws that are beside the point can say all kinds of silly things, and the silly things will be beside the point, too. The reality is that as soon as the capacity to copy music (and, later, video) for personal reasons reached the average person, the world’s courts and legislators started creating a web of laws and rules that legalized this activity. They recognized that there was a difference between a music bootlegger setting up an illegal press to run off competing copies and an individual who makes a mixtape for a friend or records something off the TV to watch later.

The Internet era has conjured forth mountains of nonsense about the death of copyright. Reformers have claimed that copyright is dead because the Internet makes it impossible to control who copies what; copyright supporters have said that the Internet itself must be contained, to head off that grim fate.

This is rubbish.

It’s impossible to control who loans a friend lunch money, but that doesn’t mean financial regulation is dead. It just means that financial regulation has to limit itself to the kinds of transactions that take place on an industrial scale, among industrial players. A copyright regulation that is sophisticated enough to handle all the nuanced business questions that the industry encounters can never be simple enough for the majority of Internet users to understand, much less obey. And a copyright that is simple enough for a twelve-year-old Harry Potter fan to understand will never be sophisticated enough to regulate the interactions of billion-dollar entertainment conglomerates and their suppliers and vendors.

The ease of copying in the modern world has nothing to do with whether Warner Bros. can sue Universal for creating unlicensed Harry Potter theme parks. It has nothing to do with whether authors can sue publishers who print their books without securing the rights. It has nothing to do with whether movie studios can sue online stores that sell their movies without authorization, or cinemas that screen them without paying for them.

Copyright is alive and well — as an industrial regulation. Copyright as a means of regulating cultural activities among private individuals isn’t dead, because it’s never been alive.

Doctorow, C., Palmer, A., & Gaiman, N. (n.d.). Information doesn’t want to be free: Laws for the Internet age.

I feel that one statement is the crux of this discussion, “copyright as a means of regulating cultural activities among private individuals isn’t dead, because it was never alive.”  It is only when you step into the realm of commerce that the copyright discussion should apply.